Not only was I born and raised in India, but my passion for technology started there too. I was wandering through the British Council Library in Calcutta when I came across a book called The Little Kingdom. It was a true story about Apple’s founders, and I was immediately interested. I thought, “This is going to change the way we live and the way we work.” From then on, I knew two things: I wanted a career in tech and I had to work for Steve Jobs.
I moved to Silicon Valley, worked for NeXT, the company that Steve Jobs started after Apple, ran a few startups, took a company through acquisition, and did a stint at Google. Now, I find myself at this awesome place called DataStax. We help enterprises and developers build high-growth, real-time applications and experiences.
Recently, I headed back to India to meet with our team, get an update on the technology landscape and discover ways we can work together to build the future. After meeting with government officials and private sector technology leaders, I came away not only with a lot of great new connections, but also a strong impression of India’s tech-forward mindset.
The public sector is all-in on India’s digital transformation
Digital transformation is key to India’s journey to becoming a $5 trillion economy. We all know about India’s stature as a software development powerhouse, and IT service providers like Wipro and Tata Consultancy Services are leaders in helping their clients around the world become digital leaders.
But I was surprised by the level of commitment the public sector has to move India forward with technology. I saw and heard examples of this over and over. The Delhi police is investing significant resources into AI and machine learning, for use cases including improved traffic flows. The federal government is making census data available via application programming interfaces (APIs), enabling developers to have simplified access to this data to build powerful applications (In 2021, census data was collected digitally, with a mobile app, for the first time ever in India).
The global leadership that India has shown by making government payments (Unified Payments Service, or UPI) accessible in real time to so many citizens is impressive, too — particularly in light of the challenges that other countries have faced in making this a reality. As Rajeev Chandrasekhar, India’s Minister of State for Electronics and IT, said recently, “India leads digital, and digital leads India.”
Private sector technology leadership is strong
I always enjoy speaking with technology leaders to learn how they scale their businesses, inspire their teams, overcome challenges, and celebrate innovation. On my trip, I met with several leaders who worked in a variety of fields, from healthcare to eCommerce to fintech—and the innovation that’s happening there blew me away.
Consider VerSe. The company’s technology enables more than 300 million users to consume content in their local language, driving creativity and connection through digital empowerment (not to mention a healthy valuation nearing $5 billion). It’s the platform behind India’s fastest-growing short video app, Josh. This kind of success is enabled by an environment that promotes innovation and high, sustainable growth.
Widespread data access is key to India’s future
As part of its quest to build a multi-trillion dollar digital economy, India is moving quickly to set up digital infrastructure. The goal? To provide internet and 5G service and ubiquitous access to data.
This access to data and services via the applications they serve will be unprecedented. The Digital India initiative is focused on making data a critical asset to improve the lives of Indian citizens and modernize the way many governmental and state agencies function.
When it comes to data, especially in government agencies and citizen services, it’s easy to think about data warehouses and analytics. Understanding data after it’s been gathered and stored is important, but the digital civilization India is building calls for more than just “data at rest.”
Citizens expect from the government and agencies a digital experience that’s in the moment—instant and valuable. Government agencies are often involved in situations requiring instant and timely information from massive data sets to make critical decisions that ensure their mission—including citizen safety, continuity of service, a secured platform, and the optimized use of its resources.
Access to real-time data—whether for agencies and citizens to have real-time information in emergencies or for developers to build applications—will play a key role in the success of the Digital India initiative.
We’re just getting started
With the vibrant business climate and tech-forward leadership in India, the DataStax team is excited to partner with the wide range of developers and enterprises that call this country home. We’ve already got some amazing customers in India (VerSe, Trigyn Technologies, and Fashnear Technologies, to name just a few), and we’re only just getting started.
( The writer Chet Kapoor is Chairman & CEO of DataStax )
The hackathon for 5G technology is all set to roll out its wings from October this year marking an important pathway for digital transformation. Poststructural adjustment reforms in 1991, technology has become an inevitable ingredient for infusing global interconnectedness in terms of faster communication and revitalizing the global economy. As the world is progressing, there are also challenges that have to be addressed in a sustainable manner. An emerging threat in the 21st century was marked by the coming of Covid-19 that initially started in Wuhan city in December 2019 and within a few months engulfed the entire globe. In these testing times, when social distancing became the new norm and lockdown was imposed, technology remained the only medium to cope with the global economy, psychological trauma and distress education.
The emergence of 5G based on indigenous technology is set to be a game changer for better connectivity, speed and efficiency. The euphoria set the ball rolling for 5G spectrum auction that recorded a remarkable spectrum sale of 1.5 lakh crore. Amongst the network providers, Reliance Jio emerged as the top bidder with 48 % of the total airwaves for 88,000 crores. This was followed by Airtel which bagged 39 % of the spectrum for 43,084 crores and Vodafone 12 % spectrum for 19,000 crores. The roll-out of 5G technology is certainly a progressive step for promoting digital transformation but this comes with challenges of speed, low bandwidth, network disruptions and technological reach in urban, rural and peri-urban areas.
India had 1.2 billion mobile subscribers in 2021 and out of this approx. 750 million are smartphone users which makes it the second largest smartphone consumer globally. Average mobile data consumption has also propelled and the average monthly mobile data consumption in 2021 has increased to 17 GB per user, an increase of 26.6 percent as per Nokia’s annual ‘Mobile Broadband Index’ report 2022. Though there has been an increase in the overall statistics of smartphone mobile users and the average data consumed, speed and bandwidth network remain a big concern. The overall performance of India in lieu of speed and network performance has been quite piecemeal and remains a daunting task. Globally, India has ranked 118 in the median Speedtest Global Index 2022 with an average mobile download speed of 14 mbps and upload speed of 3.63 mbps. Amongst the South Asian countries, India even lags behind Maldives (56.28 mbps), Nepal (15.03 mbps) and Pakistan (14.63 mbps) with respect to mobile download speed. Amongst the top performers, Norway ranks at the top in terms of mobile data speed with a download speed of 126.96 mbps and upload speed of 17.9 mbps followed by the United Arab Emirates and Bulgaria. With reference to fixed broadband speed, India has ranked 72 with a download speed of 48.11 mbps and an upload speed of 47.33 mbps.
While there has been a growth in the demand side of smartphone mobile users and data users, the supply side with reference to providing technology from the telecom companies remains a big concern. With increasing urbanization there has been growth in the urban peripheral regions and so this demand has to be met with an increase in network speed and better connectivity. It is not that only rural and peri-urban areas suffer the downward side of low speed, call drops and network congestion. Even the metropolitan cities and New Delhi being the capital of India faces the abnormalities of network congestion and low connectivity. A recent survey by Delhi police on dark spots and low network spots has revealed that there are approx. 1000 locations across Delhi where the connectivity drops. Moreover, a survey by Local Circles has brought to light that 92 percent of mobile users face low data speed and frequent disruptions in network connectivity. In fact, mobile data connectivity has become a sin qua non for the everyday consumers for digital payments, online education, management of e-services and e-governance. The emergence of the pandemic has altogether accentuated the demand for high-speed internet connectivity. Thus, the launch of 5G technology is certainly a welcome step but in such a scenario, it becomes all the more important for the government to address these challenges and come out with sustainable solutions that are consumer-centric.
The writer is an Assistant Professor, School of Liberal Education, Galgotias University
PM Narendra Modi urged the fintech sector needs to work relentlessly on safety and reliability to uphold the trust of the people.
In a message for the Global Fintech Fest, Modi said the sector has been an example of the wonders that can be worked when a government that encourages innovation comes together with the energy of young and inventive minds. "Innovation for inclusion has been our mantra, leading to the revolution in public delivery ensured by the JAM Trinity, the success of UPI in making digital payments a way of life, and India's global rise in the fintech and startup space as a hub of innovation and investment.".
JAM Trinity refers to Jan Dhan-Aadhaar-Mobile. Prime Minister said from a largely unbanked population to a country that is not only surging towards saturation in banking access but also digitally equipped, it has been a phenomenal journey.
Today, India has the second largest cell phone user population in the world. At the turn of the millennium, India was at an inflection point. The initiative to connect people with mobile technology accelerated adoption exponentially and improved the quality of life across the population. The stage is now set again for India to provide super-fast broadband service to areas including homes, villages, schools, and enterprises. By making the spectrum available, civic leaders can provide another round of growth to improve education, healthcare, and business for all citizens.
5G Fixed Technology and Millimetre Wave Spectrum
The next phase of torrential growth will be connecting every enterprise, education institute, industrial complex and energy grid to multi-gigabit-speed broadband, as is the case right now in digitally-connected countries. 5G is available in two forms: the standard that connects mobile devices and the lesser-known 5G Fixed which uses the 3GPP 5G-NR protocol and frame structure to connect buildings and places over long distances. Both ends of a link are at fixed locations, allowing for the ability to create air bridges over a long distance and deliver connectivity with superior economics.
Connecting places is equally important to connect people. Post-pandemic, the world has changed. Work is wherever you are. Education is wherever you are. Everything is media-rich with videos, audio, augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR). These applications require a new network that has low latency high throughput and is very cost-effective while providing every home and enterprise with fantastic connectivity. The performance advantages of fixed wireless broadband, along with attractive economics, will be very crucial to bridge the digital divide in India with velocity. Fixed wireless broadband will go deep and wide into India, bridging every remote corner all across the country.
Many enterprise and industrial organizations around the world have selected 3 GHz and millimeter wave fixed wireless technology as part of their digital initiatives. For example, mining, ports, airports and transportation applications have deployed private 5G networks to efficiently connect their operations.
Multi-gigabit fixed wireless uses the 24.25 GHz to 29.50 GHz spectrum for 5G and separately 60 GHz bands, also called V-band or millimeter wave. Today, many countries, including those neighbouring Southeast Asia, have made this spectrum available for use with immediate and valuable results.
The Benefits Will Reach Multiple Industries and Regions
5G provides an opportunity to enable these results because it has adopted high-speed fixed wireless broadband as part of its definition. Fixed 5G will be ideal for locations with a lower population density and, if leveraged equally, will roll out in smaller cities at the same time. This is crucial to grasp for a nation as vast as India with thousands of cities, lakhs of villages and varied, tough-to-connect terrain. These locations will now have access to improve education, healthcare, and robotic automation in industrial locations.
While consumers will have faster internet, the real benefits to society would be to provide education for every child and affordable remote healthcare for everyone, and training and vocational opportunities with advanced technology. These benefits will be enabled by emerging technology with the integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Augmented Reality with real-time operations. In telemedicine, a doctor in a city could diagnose a sensitive condition for his patient in a village by combining high-fidelity video and using advanced instrumentation, possibly robotics with high-speed 5G connectivity with ultra-low latency and almost provide real-time experience. Sensors across the country would provide information to predict weather more precisely, providing an early warning of severe conditions. Schools and universities across the country would best prepare young people for life in a global community, where talent can come from anywhere.
A 5G fixed wireless network would complement and extend mobile 5G and maximize the benefits to people and play a significant role in addressing the digital divide while fulfilling Cambium Networks’ mission of Connecting the Unconnected.
Cambium Networks’ Commitment to Technological Advancements
Since being spun off from Motorola in 2011, Cambium Networks has delivered state-of-the-art fixed wireless solutions to thousands of networks in more than 150 countries around the world, connecting more than 12 million locations worldwide. In India, Cambium Networks has connected lakhs of locations, covering enterprise, villages, schools, government buildings and college campuses. The company’s largest global research and development center is in India.
Looking ahead, I am excited about the prospect of pervasive connectivity in India with high-speed, fiber-like broadband performance over the air via our 28 GHz and 60 GHz solutions. The V-band products have been designed and developed mostly out of our design center in India. We anticipate that the Indian regulators will approve this frequency band soon.
Accelerated adoption of V-band in the last mile will provide high-speed connectivity to improve education, healthcare and commerce. Recently, Hon Secretary DOT Sh. K Rajaraman said, “The onset of new services (based on 5G) will also necessitate setting of new types of network equipment, especially in rural, remote and hilly areas. So, therefore, we must promote the skilling of people to handle this.” This skilling should include Fixed 5G, which will be a fast and efficient way to deploy reliable connectivity in their villages.
With its enormous young talent pool, India will be at the center of this development, both in technology and as an economy. If service providers adopt both mobile and fixed 5G, these possibilities can unfold sooner and from across the nation. We have seen the success that mobile connectivity has delivered. Now we have the opportunity to get the full benefit of 5G by taking action to connect places with 5G Fixed technology. These technologies exist now, and Cambium Networks stands ready to bring these innovations to India and play our role in connecting our future generations and ushering in a new era of prosperity and wellbeing.
(The writer is an internationally acclaimed technocrat and one of the most respected Silicon valley entrepreneurs)
The latest line-up of iPhones will boast better cameras, faster processors, and a longer-lasting battery — all at the same prices as last year's models, despite inflationary pressure that has driven up the cost of many other everyday items.
The hoopla surrounding Apple's new iPhone 14 models is part of a post-Labor Day ritual the company has staged annually for more than a decade. Wednesday's event was held on the company's Cupertino, California, campus at a theater named after company co-founder Steve Jobs. After Apple CEO Tim Cook strolled out on stage, most of the event consisted of pre-recorded video presentations that the company honed during previous events staged during the pandemic.
For several years, Apple's new iPhones have mostly featured incremental upgrades to cameras and battery life, and this year's models were no exception. Pricing for the standard iPhone 14 will start at $799; the deluxe iPhone 14 Pro Max will start at $1099.
Among the latest improvements is a 48-megapixel camera in the Pro and Pro Max models that the company said will produce especially crisp pictures. The iPhone 13 versions of the Pro and Pro Max have 12-megapixel cameras. This year's high-end models will also have always-on displays that stay lit even when the device is locked, a feature that has long been available on many smartphones powered by Google's Android software.
Beginning in November, all the iPhone 14 models will be able to send SOS messages via a new satellite feature — a safety measure intended to let users request help when in remote areas without a wireless connection. All the iPhone 14 models also will include a motion sensor capable of detecting serious car crashes and automatically connecting to emergency services.
With inflation still hovering at its highest level in 40 years, consumers have curbed their spending on many discretionary items. That's likely contributing to a recent decline in smartphone sales, although the iPhone has fared far better than competing Android devices.
The dimming sales outlook prompted the research firm International Data Corp. To predict a worldwide decline in 2022 smartphone shipments of 6.5%, almost double the 3.5?cline it had estimated a few months ago. Despite that anticipated drop in sales, the average price for new smartphones is expected to finish this year about 6% higher than last year, IDC estimated.
By keeping iPhones prices the same, Apple faces the potential risk of undermining its profits if inflation drives up its own costs. It's a hit that the company could easily afford, given it has reaped $44 billion in profits through the first half of this year.
With a focus on developing computer skills, Alphabet and Google CEO Sundar Pichai has announced a $20 million grant to impart computer science education to 11 million students in the US.
This brings Google's total commitment to computer science education to more than $240 million since 2004."We'll focus our efforts on supporting national and local organisations who reach underserved students in major urban centres and rural communities, and who help governments and educators implement CS education plans nationwide."
The announcement is part of the 'Grow with Google' initiative and includes funding from Google.org. Earlier this year, Google partnered with the American Farm Bureau Foundation for Agriculture to train 2,000 teachers on digital skills, enabling them to reach 200,000 rural students by the end of the 2023 school year.
"This summer, I joined other CEOs to send a message in support of making computer science a basic part of every K-12 classroom," said Pichai.
More than 9 million people in the US have already learned new skills through Grow with Google -- including Google Career Certificates, which prepare people for jobs in growing fields.
"We believe Google and other companies have a responsibility to help people get the skills they need to get a good job, start a new business, and provide a solid foundation for their families -- no matter what their age or where they live," Pichai stressed.
Riding on homegrown brands, India has piped China to become the second largest smartwatch market globally for the first time, growing 347 percent (year-on-year), a new report showed on Thursday.
Indian brands such as Fire-Boltt and Noise took top spots in the global market share, as the smartwatch market's shipments grew 13 percent in the June quarter (Q2) amid macro uncertainties such as inflation and geopolitical conflicts, according to Counterpoint Research.
"As expected, China's economic slowdown resulted in a YoY decline in its market, with major Chinese brands such as Huawei, imoo and Amazfit seeing limited YoY growth or decline," said Associate Director Sujeong Lim.
Fire-Boltt recorded a remarkable increase in shipments, taking first place in India's market in terms of quarterly shipments.
Noise grew 298 percent YoY, gaining popularity in both online and offline markets of India. However, due to the rapid growth of Fire-Boltt, it lost the top position in the Indian market with a 26 percent share in Q2.
"During the quarter, 30 percent of models shipped in the Indian market sold for less than $50, and major local brands launched cost-effective models, lowering the entry barriers for consumers," Lim said.
Apple's shipments increased 8 percent, taking the top spot in this quarter globally as well. However, as the effect of the new model launch gradually weakened, the decline in Apple Watch 7 series shipments became larger compared to the previous quarter.
Samsung maintained its second place with a 40 percent YoY growth. The Galaxy Watch 4 series has maintained its popularity, especially in North America and India.
Huawei took the first position in the Chinese market for the third consecutive quarter and Xiaomi's shipments increased 13 percent YoY with no significant change in its market share.
"The brand needs to increase its presence in India to further expand its market share, but competition will not be easy due to strong local brands," said the report.
China, which ranked second in the previous quarter, was pushed down to the third place with a 10 percent YoY decrease in its shipments as consumer demand contracted due to Covid-19 lockdowns and negative economic growth.
China suffered a sharp fall in semiconductor output in July amid supply chain disruptions due to strict Covid measures in place, the media reported on Monday, as the US doubles down on domestic chip manufacturing with help from allies like South Korea.
According to data released by the National Bureau of Statistics, the production of integrated circuits (ICs) dropped 16.6 per cent year-on-year to 27.2 billion units last month, reports South China Morning Post.
China had reported 27.5 billion and 28.8 billion units for May and June, respectively.
"The weakness in chip production is a further setback for China's ambition to boost local semiconductor production and cut reliance on imported chips," the report mentioned.
US President Joe Biden last week signed the historic $280 billion CHIPS and Science Act into law that includes $52 billion to boost domestic semiconductor manufacturing.
The CHIPS and Science Act is the US bet to incentivise chipmakers to reverse course and build fabs in the US and cut the dependence on China.
China has slammed the US bill aimed at countering Beijing's chip drive.
"It is disturbing for global supply chains to see the US apply increasing administrative intervention in normal market competition when it comes to advanced technology areas such as semiconductors," The Global Times reported on Sunday.
If Washington is determined to keep the so-called "chip war" going, it must be ready for China to fight back, it added.
At least 300 employees of TikTok and its parent company ByteDance employees worked for the Chinese state media publications, and more than a dozen still do, the media reported.
LinkedIn profiles of ByteDance and TikTok employees showed them in current roles as content partnerships, strategy, policy, public affairs, monetisation and 'media cooperation', reports Forbes.
Profiles of 15 current ByteDance employees revealed they worked at the tech firm and state media outlets simultaneously.
"Fifteen indicate that current ByteDance employees are also concurrently employed by Chinese state media entities, including Xinhua News Agency, China Radio International and China Central/China Global Television," the report said late on Thursday.
The LinkedIn profiles reviewed by Forbes "reveal significant connections between TikTok's parent company, ByteDance, and the propaganda arm of the Chinese government, which has been investing heavily in using social media to amplify disinformation that serves the Chinese Communist Party".
According to the report, ByteDance and TikTok did not contest that the 300 LinkedIn profiles represent current employees or deny their connections to Chinese state media.
A spokesperson for ByteDance said that the company makes "hiring decisions based purely on an individual's professional capability to do the job".
"For our China-market businesses, that includes people who have previously worked in government or state media positions in China. Outside of China, employees also bring experience in government, public policy, and media organisations from dozens of markets," the company said.
Forbes identified 49 LinkedIn profiles for TikTok and ByteDance employees who previously worked for CCTV and CGTN.
Among them were CCTV's former editor-in-chief, who now serves as ByteDance's director of media content partnerships, and a ByteDance overseas market operator whose profile says he is still an editor for CCTV.
TikTok's rise has generated national security concerns from US lawmakers.
TikTok recently admitted that employees outside of the country could access that information, although "robust cybersecurity controls and authorisation" from its US security team were required.
In June, Buzzfeed News reported that TikTok users' data in the US was repeatedly accessed by employees in China.
Samsung Electronics aims to raise the ratio of foldable phones to half of its total smartphone sales by 2025, a top executive has said, after the tech giant unveiled its latest foldable smartphones in an online event.
Samsung, the world's largest smartphone maker, will work to make its foldable smartphones another main column alongside the Galaxy S flagship series and a key category in the premium segment, Roh Tae-moon, president and head of Samsung's mobile experience (MX) division, said at a press conference after the Unpacked online event.
Roh said Samsung's latest foldable series, the Galaxy Z Flip 4 and the Galaxy Z Fold 4, will help the company consolidate its leading position in the global smartphone market, despite continuing headwinds from recession fears and high inflation that have cut into consumers' purchasing power.
He stressed that the new foldable phones have "improved in both hardware and software aspects," especially in close cooperation with global mobile partners like Google, Microsoft and Facebook parent Meta, reports Yonhap news agency.
The clamshell-style Galaxy Z Flip 4 is made to "go truly hands-free," allowing users to make phone calls, reply to texts and take photos without flipping the phone open, and has an improved user experience when uploading short videos on Facebook, WhatsApp and Instagram, according to Samsung.
The Galaxy Z Fold 4, which opens like a book, offers an enhanced multitasking and user-friendly screen environment with a layout similar to that of a PC, giving easy access to a user's favorite and recent apps.
Samsung said the phone also supports the drag-and-drop feature for Google applications, including Gmail, so that users can quickly and conveniently share files and photos, and copy and paste links.
Roh said Samsung has secured enough initial inventory through smarter management of supply chains and logistics.
According to industry tracker Counterpoint Research, foldable phones are the fastest growing smartphone type this year, which are forecast to grow 73 percent year-on-year to reach 16 million units.
In the first half of the year, Samsung led the market with a 62 percent market share, followed by China's Huawei with 16 percent, the research firm said, adding that Samsung's market share is expected to reach 80 per cent in the second half thanks to the latest foldable series.
"We expect the new Galaxy Fold 4 and Flip 4 combo to continue Samsung's momentum in the space and sell close to 9 million units this year," analyst Jene Park from Counterpoint Research said.
During an earnings call last month, Samsung said while smartphone demand is forecast to slow in the second half amid prolonged geopolitical issues and economic uncertainties, it will try to boost flagship product sales and profitability by making foldable phones become the mainstream.
While millions of smartphone and internet users in the country anxiously wait for better speed with 5G roll-out, the country equally needs higher efficiencies in industries like manufacturing, healthcare, education, agriculture, financial inclusion and many others to accelerate the process of digital transformation, which can best be achieved only through the use of private captive 5G networks on the premises.
Private 5G captive networks are about the deployment of high speed, enhanced data capacity, and ultra-low latency applications inside a closed manufacturing unit, hospital, airport and shipping port, among others.
Such networks are single end-users (the enterprise itself) in the given location, unlike a vast number of users in public networks.
According to Neil Shah, Vice President of Research, Counterpoint Research, such private 5G networks are going to be self-serving networks ideally suited for large enterprises with huge campuses, premises such as factories, ports, mines, and universities.
"These enterprises will benefit from efficiently using their own spectrum to connect multiple internet of things (IoT) applications -- from surveillance cameras, million dollar sensor-integrated machines for real-time monitoring, predictive maintenance, shop-floor digital twins, automated cranes, vehicles or forklifts," Shah told IANS.
This will provide secure, high-speed and low-latency broadband connectivity to enterprise devices such as smartphones, tablets, PCs and augmented reality (AR) glasses for driving up productivity and efficiency.
"The whole business case of enterprise building on private networks is driven by self-designed, service level agreement (SLAs) cost structure, as spectrum is not a public-shared resource anymore, in addition to offering cellular-grade security and data sovereignty with data ideally not leaving the premises," Shah explained.
The Department of Telecom, in its notice inviting applications (NIA) for the auction of spectrum in various bands, provided explicit clarity on the subject of Captive Non-Public Networks (CNPN), or private 5G captive networks.
Section 2.4 of the NIA on CNPN laid down the principle that a CNPN can be set up in any of the four possible ways, including the one where CNPNs for non-telecom verticals may obtain the spectrum directly from DoT and establish their own isolated network.
According to TV Ramachandran, President of the Broadband India Forum (BIF), a public telecom network set up by a telecom licensee would necessarily have to be one which optimizes the various needs of the masses.
"It would not be in a position to meet specific enterprise higher and specific SLAs (service-level agreements) that are characteristic of specific industry verticals. For example, the needs and requirements would be quite different for a Maruti-Suzuki automotive factory from that of an Apollo Hospital or of an IIT Delhi campus, and so on," he mentioned.
The regulatory authority in Germany said recently that for many enterprises, operating a campus network is linked to introducing new, digital business processes.
"The provision of numbers represents a key contribution to the spread of digital technology. It benefits both large industrial enterprises as well as small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) wanting to operate private campus networks with their own broadband spectrum assignments and numbers," the German regulator noted.
With private 5G networks, enterprises will use licensed cellular spectrum instead of open-for-all unlicensed Wi-Fi spectrum.
However, according to industry experts, it is still not clear if it is lucrative enough for enterprises to build their own licensed spectrum-based captive cellular network or lease the spectrum from mobile network operator (MNO) or buy a network slice from the MNO.
"It will take at least four-to-five years, looking into the scale of devices connected to the private network and efficient spectrum utilisation, to determine if its prudent enough to deploy your own captive private network," Shah told IANS.
India will initially see several deployment scenarios in the market and depending on the size, requirements and execution of an enterprise, it will be clear which scenario is suitable and viable.