B R AMBEDKAR ON COLLEGIUM
Ambedkar delivered a lengthy speech in response to the debates and amendments introduced in Article 124. "I came across three distinct proposals. The first proposal is that Supreme Court justices be appointed with the Chief Justice's approval. "There can be no disagreement that the judiciary must be both independent of the executive and competent in its own right," he said. "With regard to the question of the concurrence of the Chief Justice, it appears to me that those who advocate that proposition seem to rely implicitly both on the impartiality of the Chief Justice and the soundness of his judgment," Ambedkar said.
‘I personally feel no doubt that the Chief Justice is a very eminent person. But after all the Chief Justice is a man with all the failings, sentiments and prejudices which we as common people have. To allow the Chief Justice practically a veto upon the appointment of judges is really to transfer the authority to the Chief Justice which we are not prepared to vest in the President or the government of the day. I, therefore, think that is also a dangerous proposition.’
– Dr. B R Ambedkar, President, Drafting Committee of Constitution of India
What Kiran Rijiju, the Law Minister in Narendra Modi's NDA government, said at a Sabarmati Samvad event organised by Panchjanya, the RSS's weekly magazine, was no different from what Dr Ambedkar said in a Constituent Assembly debate on May 24, 1949.
The public's dissatisfaction with the judiciary, which is becoming increasingly visible on public platforms, stems largely from the opacity of the process by which judges in higher courts are appointed. Rijiju also spoke of public dissatisfaction with the judiciary on various platforms, as well as the same judiciary's plea to gag it after it presided over violence against constitutionally clear laws like the Farm Laws, calling it an expression of dissent.
The judiciary's arbitrariness has been pronounced, and when people see it, their trust in the judiciary is shaken. When they discover that the beheading of a Kanhaiya Lal does not jolt the conscience of the highest court as much as a beard cut of a man of a particular faith, they begin to doubt the competence of the learned men who act partisan while constantly throwing both Constitutional and Mahatma Gandhi at us. The greatest threat to the rule of law is a loss of faith in the society that it seeks to govern, and the leading cause of this loss of faith is arbitrariness in the rule of law. When the law is crystal clear, and the constitution is clear, how come a two-member Supreme Court bench has a split decision on Hijab in a public institution? Either the law is extremely bad, or the Judges must be extremely incompetent to interpret the law in such disparate ways. A third possibility emerges, which is even worse than the first two: instead of interpreting the laws, they harden their opinions. This brings up the issue of how judges are appointed. According to Dr. Ambedkar's quote, the Constituent Assembly ruled out the last option as being extremely dangerous. Thus, under Article 124 of the Constitution, it was pronounced that:
‘Every Judge of the SC should be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal after consultation with such of the judges of the Supreme Court and of High Courts in the state as the president may deem necessary for the purpose and shall hold office until he attains the age of Sixty-Five. ’
While the makers of the Indian Constitution attempted to keep the appointment of judges free of on-the-ground party politics, they also attempted to make way for the appointment of judges reflective of the voice of the people through the elected head of a democratic government, the President of India. To ensure that the President was properly advised by legal minds throughout the process, they retained the provision for consultation with Supreme Court and High Court Judges but left it up to the President's discretion. The choice of words made it abundantly clear that the Constitution did not bind the elected president of Democratic India to consult with legal luminaries. The direct implication of this is that any mechanism that contradicts this and the rights of the President of India would be unconstitutional, regardless of the colour we paint it in.
As a result, the notion that the CJI-led collegium has primacy because the word "consultation" appears in Article 124 and amounts to "concurrence," and that the Collegium's role is critical in ensuring the independence of the judiciary, is nothing more than a rewriting of the Constitution and giving the CJI veto power. It is the same idea that the Constituent Assembly expressly rejected decades ago by voice vote.
By introducing this concept, the Supreme Court is assuming the role of the Constituent Assembly, which was led by Ambedkar, Nehru, Patel, K.M. Munshi, Jaipal Singh Munda, Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar, Pattabhi Sitaramayya, and India's first President, Rajendra Prasad.Collegium and NJAC
There are numerous and heinous examples of extraneous considerations in judicial appointments in India. Justice R. S. Pathak informed George H. Gadbois Jr. that a sitting Supreme Court judge did not want Delhi High Court Chief Justice T.P. S. Chawla to be elevated to the Supreme Court because Justice Chawla, the Supreme Court judge's neighbor, threatened to shoot his dog!
During the 1950–1971 period, executive interference in judicial appointments was only due to political patronage; however, after 1971, the Indira Gandhi regime insisted on a "committed judiciary," and the government openly weighed the ideology of judicial nominees. Supersession and unfavorable transfers were two tools the government used to intimidate judges.
A "Judicial Collegium," which has had the final say on judicial appointments for the past three decades, was established by the Second Judges Case decision. It was the Supreme Court's idea, and the Constitution does not specifically mention it.
Because it was thought that no appointment could be confirmed by the President without the Chief Justice of India's affirmative approval, the executive role was reduced to a ceremonial one.
Furthermore, in the Third Judges Case (1998), it was clarified that the government could disagree during the process, but if the recommendation was unanimously reiterated by the collegium, the candidate must be appointed.
"While the collegium's inception was viewed as an assertion," wrote Arun Jaitley in his essay, "as a result of its opaque functioning, questionable choices, and genuine lack of participatory involvement of interested stakeholders,"
"bargains are struck between collegium members." Members frequently have preferred candidates and will accept other members' candidates if it means that their own candidates can be appointed or pro-Merit is no longer the most important factor. Rion.
It has been replaced by community representation, caste, ideology, or simple familiarity. "The mystique of the process, the small base from which the selections were made, and secrecy and confidentiality' ensured that the process could fail on occasion," retired Justice Ruma Pal said.
Making the wrong appointments and, even worse, promoting nepotism. A brave step forward was the Constitution (Ninety-ninth Amendment) Act of 2014. The amendment created the National Judicial Appointments Commission, which consists of the Chief Justice of India, the two senior-most judges, the Union Law Minister, and two esteemed members of civil society. To regulate how the NJAC recommends candidates to the President, the National Judicial Appointments Commission Act 2014 was also passed. 15. The Supreme Court declared the NJAC and the 99th Constitutional Amendment unconstitutional, stating that the judiciary cannot risk becoming entangled in a "web of indebtedness" to the government.
A powerful tool for resolving legal conundrums is comparative law. The commission system for judicial appointments has been adopted by many nations in both the Global North and the Global South, including the United Kingdom and South Africa. This system involves all three branches of government as well as civil society, legal academia, and the bar. Nepal, on the other hand, with its younger constitution and historical, cultural, geographical, and political proximity to India, provides the most relevant modality for us. The President of Nepal appoints the Chief Justice on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council. The President of Nepal appoints Supreme Court justices on the recommendation of the Judicial Council. The Judicial Council is a five-member independent body led by the Chief Justice, the Law and Justice Minister, the Supreme Court's most senior judge, and two distinguished jurists representing the Prime Minister and the Nepal Bar Association. Before the President can appoint the Chief Justice and Supreme Court justices, they must be confirmed by the Parliamentary Hearing Committee. The Parliamentary Hearing Committee is made up of 15 members drawn from both Houses of Parliament. As in the case of Nepal, the Constituent Assembly of India contemplated a multiplicity of authorities for the appointment of judges of the constitutional courts, with each of these authorities mutually checking and balancing their functioning. The current collegium system has removed the checks and balances mechanism, which is a fundamental feature of the Constitution. A hybrid mechanism, such as Nepal's, with a collective and transparent procedure for appointing judges, is desirable for India as well.
As India is approaching the summer season, record levels of heat-trapping greenhouse gases have led to increased incidences of droughts, floods and heatwaves on a global scale, the World Meteorological Organisation's (WMO) annual report for 2022 said.
The WMO, an agency of the United Nations, in its report, said real-time data from specific locations show that levels of the three greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide - continued to increase in 2023.
Water crises, Droughts, floods and heatwaves affected communities on every continent including India and cost many billions of dollars, the report said. Antarctic sea ice fell to its lowest extent on record and the melting of some European glaciers was, literally, off the charts, it said.
Global mean temperatures for the past eight years have been the highest on record; in 2022, it was 1.15 degrees Celsius above the 1850-1900 average.
The policymakers must take note of the crisis, the world will witness tremendous discomfort.
India has surpassed China (142.57 crore) to become the world’s most populous nation with 142.86 crore people, according to United Nations Population Fund, but the news has come with a demographic dividend —about 50 percent of India’s population is below the age of 25 years.
According to the UNFPA’s State of World Population (SWP) Report 2023, about 25 percent of India’s population is in the age group of 0-14 years, 18 percent in the 10 to 19 age group, 26 percent in the age bracket of 10 to 24 years, 68 percent in 15 to 64 years age group, and 7 percent above 65 years, said United Nations Population Fund India representative Andrea Wojnar.
The UN projections estimate that the country’s population is expected to grow for the next three decades after which it will begin declining.
The population demographics of India vary from State to State. UN analysis has revealed that Kerala and Punjab have an aging population, while Bihar and Uttar Pradesh have a young population.
This is the first time that India has topped the UN list of most populous countries since it started collecting population data in 1950. According to the United Nations’ World Population Prospects-2022, India’s population was 86.1 crore while China’s population was 114.4 crore in 1950.
The report further states that by 2050, India’s population is expected to rise to 166.8 crore while China’s population would dip to 131.7 crore.
India Centre for Policy Research & Development (ICPRD) is a Policy and Advocacy think tank headquartered in New Delhi. We take this opportunity to inform you that we organised a Conference/Summit “Amrit Manthan: India’s Sustainable Transition” on Friday, 7th April 2023 at 02:30 pm in WTC, (World Trade Centre), Cuffe Parade, Mumbai. This event was organised by the experts and policymakers for Climate Resilient India where the experts from worldwide spoke on People Planet and Profit 3P’s of the sustainable model & its impact, Just Transition in Community development and Green funds allocated & the action plan for the execution as related in COP 27 global event.
This was orchestrated by Shri Rajiv Ranjan Singh, President, India Centre for Policy Research & Development (ICPRD), New Delhi & attended by experts from India as well as experts from worldwide in the presence of our honourable Senior BJP Leader Sh. Sunil Deodhar, Sh. Shyam Jaju, Sh. Vijay G Kalantri, Chairman WTC, Mumbai, Shri Kripa Shankar Singh Sr leader BJP and ex-minister of the state of Maharashtra, Dr Mukesh Batra founder of Dr Batra's group of companies, & an author, Shrimati shilini Singh Journalist and an active promoter of climate resilient India and founder of NGO PARI, Dr. Khwaja Iftikhar Ahmed Founder President, Inter Faith Harmony Foundation of India and Senior climate change Experts like Dr. Prateek Sharma, VC, Teri University, Prof. Arun Sawant, Former VC, Mumbai University, Smt. Krishna Gangopadhyay, MD & CEO, Afrinix Exchange Mauritius and Finance and legal Expert Mr. Suraj Nangia- CA & LLM management graduate from The Wharton School USA the Managing Partner from Nangia & Company who presented their vision for India’s sustainable transition.
“Amrit Manthan: India’s Sustainable Transition” at world trade Centre Mumbai focus on achieving the dream and vision of our Hon'ble Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi Ji's to build a sustainable ecosystem for 7 billion people worldwide in the true spirit of "Vasudeva Kutumbakam" (One Family, One Future, One Earth) during this "Amrit Kaal." Said Shri Rajiv Ranjan Singh, President of, India Centre for Policy Research & Development (ICPRD).
Dr. Hari Prasad Kanoria, Chairman, Kanoria Foundation and Sri Hari Global School, Asansol, has organised an event on “Human Values in Education” at Srihari Global School, Asansol. The event was part of a series of events on universal human values in the education system between Kanoria Foundation and the International Meditation Foundation.
The chief guest at the event Swami Advaitananda Giri, Chairman of the International Meditation Foundation said that “Education is that which liberates, education is that which leads us to the flowering of our utmost potential as human beings. In order to achieve this Vision India has taken a major step forward with its National Education Policy 2020 by the addition of universal human values, making education practical with the inclusion of life skills, teaching the right history, nature education, a mechanism to address commercialization & corruption, connecting with the subconscious mind by education in the mother tongue, developing a scientific mindset, a mechanism for stress management, anger management, etc…”
For the effective implementation of the National Education Policy 2020, we must have one class period every day dedicated to the practical transmission of human values in our schools & colleges. This one class period every day will make Human Values as the foundation of the education system instead of ambition driven blind race right now. This is the ONLY practical way by which in 10-15 years we can have a peaceful world, he said.
Swami Advaitananda Giri further explained that “Just by losing a football match in Indonesia more than 174 people died in riots by fans. In the 1994 FIFA World Cup, Colombian player Escobar was murdered just for a mistake of a self-goal. In the world’s most developed nation America, US CDC 2022 reports that 32.3% overall population is affected with Anxiety or Depression disorders, out of this 50.9% of youth in the age group of 18-29 were also reported to be affected with Anxiety or Depression disorders.”
He further explained that If 32.3% population is having serious mental health issues like anxiety or depression then it can be safely presumed that to have an anxiety or depression rate of 32.3 %, there must be a need for at least 3 times more sad people in the population, this leads to 32.3% x 3 = 96.9% of the total population. If 96.9% population is sad then there is a likelihood that 99.99% population must be experiencing the emotions of worry, fear, the feeling of failure, etc.
The feeling of worry forms the basis of sadness, sadness leads to anxiety or depression, and further anxiety or depression results in the very serious act of suicide or violent behavior. Depression or anxiety doesn’t occur directly. It is caused in progressive stages out of the feeling of sadness or dejection etc… As the sadness or dejection type of emotions deepens then only it will take shape of depression or anxiety, not straightway. This means that depression or anxiety is an outcome of the prevalence of sadness among the larger population. For example, if one person has been diagnosed with depression or anxiety that means behind this there must be at least three people or more who were already experiencing sadness or dejection type of emotional imbalance, Swami Advaitananda Giri explained.
“What has gone wrong, and why we are like this,” he asked.
Dr. Hari Prasad Kanoria, Chairman, Kanoria Foundation and Sri Hari Global School, Asansol
said “The gap in the quality of teachers in the roll-out of this type of programme can be addressed by online video materials. All who specialize in it should come forward and help Government in the development of open-source training modules for teachers, students, and parents. The modules should be playful, maximum practical than theory & should cover different age groups. The training modules for human values should be able to practically transmit the wisdom to be loving, truthful, honest, and overall, a good human being. The National Education Policy 2020 is a great step forward in this direction however the policy will be as good as it gets rightly implemented”
Dr. Hari Prasad Kanoria emphasised on the need for “ Sanskara “ – natural values like work, righteousness, spiritual power, delight, service, humbleness, prosperity, and fearlessness are needed in education along with holistic, intellectual, technical, health, and moral development.
At Kanoria Foundation our tagline is “Work with devotion righteously, selflessly for welfare”. We involve the students in sustainable development. Life is a joyous adventurous journey. Students are being taught to treat all equally as they want to get treated themselves. They are divine and have oceanic strength and infinite knowledge, he said.
For more information, please contact:
International Meditation Foundation,
Mobile: +91 9975675620
Mr. Kamlesh Mishra, CEO
SRIHARI GLOBAL SCHOOL
Shristinagar, Behind Sentrum Mall, Asansol – 713305, West Bengal, India.
Mobile: +91 70048 34829
The United Nations (UN) on Tuesday announced that the world population meter recorded the eight billion mark. In a statement, the UN attributed the growth to human development, with people living longer thanks to improvements in public health, nutrition, personal hygiene and medicine.
It also added that it is the result of higher fertility rates, particularly in the world's poorest countries, as well.
Now amidst this announcement, internet users reacted to this news with hilarious memes and messages. While some users shared live recordings of the moment when the count hit the eight billion mark, others jokingly wrote, "8 Billion people and I'm still alone".
Swami Advaitananda Giri, Chairman, International Meditation Foundation said that “Education is, that which Liberates. Education is that which leads us to the flowering of our utmost potential as human beings. If what we study in our schools and colleges is Education, then education must lead us to a loving, joyful, and peaceful world. However, the reality of education is the other way around. Despite many resources and technological advancement that makes human life much easier, the impact of the present education system is reflected in the increase of stress, anxiety, depression, unhappiness, and heartlessness like what we see in the Ukraine war right now.”
Swami Advaitananda Giri further stated that “To fix this problem we must have one class period every day dedicated to the practical transmission of human values in our schools & colleges. This one class period will make Human Values as the foundation of the education system instead of ambition driven blind race right now.
The gap in the quality of teachers in the roll-out of this type of program can be addressed by online video materials. All who specialize in it should come forward and help Government in the development of open-source training modules for teachers, students, and parents. The modules should be playful, maximum practical than theory & should cover different age groups. The training modules for human values should be able to practically transmit the wisdom to be loving, truthful, honest, and overall, a good human being. The National Education Policy 2020 is a great step forward in this direction however the policy will be as good as it gets rightly implemented”
Vice Chancellor, JC Bose University of Science and Technology (YMCA), Faridabad, Prof S k Tomar, made the students realize the futility of entering a rat race with others. Students should learn to remain happy by means of self-restraint and by exercising control over their thoughts.
Prof Lokesh Shekhawat, National President of the All-India Association of Vice Chancellors, and three time VC of JNVU University, Rajasthan, said that India has produced so many Rishi and saints and is the land of the Vedas and the Upanishads. We should be proud of our culture and traditions and the rich contributions india has made towards the well-being of the whole humanity.
Dr Randeep Singh, General secretary, AIAVCA, also inspired the students to be proud of their heritage and dedicate their time and energy towards some noble goal which can bring about a positive change in the world.
Dr. Savita Bhagat, Officiating Principal, D.A.V. Centenary College Faridabad elaborated on how in the Indian tradition all animate and even inanimate objects are considered as forms of the divine. It is in our culture only that we worship land, water, trees, and the sun. We should not lose sight of our rich Vedic culture as only that can help make human life rich and worthwhile.
What is Global Warming?
Every one of us is familiar with the term Global Warming. But, we are still not clear on its meaning. Hence, in layman’s language, global warming means a gradual rise in the overall temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere. There are various activities taking place which have been increasing the temperature gradually. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the global annual temperature has increased in total by a little more than 1*C. Controlling global warming; however, is not unmanageable. The first and foremost step in controlling global warming is to identify its root cause.
Causes of Global Warming: It can be either 1) Natural like the release of greenhouse gases, or the eruption of volcanoes etc. 2) Man-made including fossil fuel, intensive farming, waste disposal, overconsumption, mining, excessive use of automobiles etc.
Effects of Global Warming:1) The increase in temperature and climate change disturbs the animal and plant reproduction cycle resulting in the disappearance of many endangered and endemic species of plants and animals.
2) Melting of ice at poles
3) Increase in the sea level
4) Scarcity of food and energy for consumption
5) Untimely and excess floods, drought, hurricanes, cloud bursts etc
Prevention of Global Warming :
Overcoming global warming is not an impossible task, but it can be controlled or stopped when combined efforts are put in. For that, both individuals and governments have to take steps to make it possible.
Ours is a vast country with the biggest geographical area spread from Kashmir to Kanyamkumari and from Gujarat to Assam. At every point or corner of this country, there are many means and ways, where we can work to reduce global warming to restore the balance of nature.
For this, firstly we have to carry out a detailed study of the weather and soil condition of these areas and should grow commercial and traditional trees suitable to that habitat.
Secondly, there was a time, when our country was abundant in rivers and lakes. Now with the passage of time and in the name of development, deforestation took place by cutting trees and plants. This has resulted in lesser rain and the death of rivers and lakes. So, in order to restore these, all rivers are to be recharged and bought to life.
Thirdly, the boring of wells in hilly areas should be banned and stopped. Due to boring activity in hilly areas, the moisture level of soil below the ground becomes lower resulting in the weakening of the roots of the trees which leads to the uprooting of trees. All these results in the devastating of hills and the felling of mountainous rocks. To overcome this, we should build a retaining wall along the border of these hills while developing roads. Once these retaining walls are built, they will prevent the fall of these mountainous rocks and helps in maintaining the moisture of the soil. Also, provisions should be made to grow more and more creepy plants along these to hold the soil tightly and properly.
Fourthly, mangroves should be developed and maintained below the sea, so that the sea animals, reptiles, amphibians, and creatures should sustain their life and can maintain the ecology of nature. With all these, we can reduce global warming of the earth and can restore the balance of nature for future generations.
Apart from all these, other common ways and means to reduce global warming are:
1) Reduction of greenhouse gas.
2) Moving towards renewable energy like solar, wind, biomass etc.
3) Use of energy-efficient equipment and water-saving techniques.
4) Encouraging the use of more and more public transport and carpooling.
5) Reducing CO2 by implementing electric and hybrid vehicles.
6) Reducing CO2 from building by using the sustainable infrastructure.
7) Develop a responsible consumption habit, may it be food, clothing, cosmetics etc.
8) Encourage them to use more and more natural resources.
India in the past was home to Asiatic cheetahs, but the species was declared extinct domestically by 1952. The big cats are being brought to India from Namibia as part of an intercontinental translocation project called Project Cheetah. This will be the world's first inter-continental large wild carnivore translocation project, the Prime Minister's Office has said.
"Cheetahs will help in the restoration of open forest and grassland ecosystems in India. This will help conserve biodiversity and enhance the ecosystem services like water security, carbon sequestration and soil moisture conservation, benefiting the society at large," a media release from the PM's office said.
Eight cheetahs from Namibia - flying in a special cargo plane - have landed at the Gwalior airport in Madhya Pradesh. The speedy big cats will now be flown in a helicopter to the Kuno National Park, where they will be released.
According to the Cheetah Conservation Fund (CCF), an international not-for-profit organisation headquartered in Namibia and dedicated to saving the fastest land animal, the five female cheetahs bound for India are aged between two and five years, while the three males are aged between 4.5 years and 5.5 years.
A committee set up by the Centre for the global expansion of IITs has, in consultation with Indian missions abroad, identified UK, UAE, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Malaysia and Thailand as prospective locations for offshore campuses under the “Indian International Institute of Technology” brand name, The Sunday Express has learned.
These seven countries ranked high on several key parameters, according to a report submitted to the Ministry of Education by the 17-member committee, led by IIT Council standing committee chairperson Dr K Radhakrishnan. The parameters include the level of interest and commitment, academic lineage, conducive ecosystem to attract quality faculty and students, regulatory provisions and potential benefits to enhance India’s “branding and relation”.
The report is based on feedback from heads of 26 Indian missions, with the Economic Diplomacy section of the Ministry of External Affairs arranging two virtual sessions between the committee and embassy officials on February 2 and March 28.
According to inputs shared by the Indian High Commission in the UK, the mission has obtained “six concrete proposals of cooperation from the University of Birmingham, King’s College London, University of Exeter, University of Oxford, University of Cambridge and University College London”.
“Our mission has made multiple requests for a meeting between the universities and the IIT committee. It has further requested for a detailed concept note and nodal contact point for taking forward this proposal,” stated the report, which was reviewed by The Indian Express.
The report also states that IIT-Delhi is the preferred choice for UAE, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Malaysia. According to the report, Egypt is keen to launch an arrangement, online if not physical, from 2022-23. However, the committee has advised against haste, saying that preferably only residential campuses be opened after due deliberations.
“A certain minimum commitment of area for the campus is required from the local government while establishing the new institutes. The institutes are being established not for commerce, but rather for building the image of the country abroad. Therefore, these institutes should cater to the local student population (which could be the Indian diaspora). The percentage of Indian students in these institutes should be less than 20%,” the report said.
The proposal for IITs to expand abroad is not new. For instance, IIT Delhi is already in talks with the Department of Education and Knowledge in UAE’s Abu Dhabi, while IIT Madras is exploring options in Sri Lanka, Nepal and Tanzania. So far, the discussions were largely about individual IITs. The committee has, for the first time, proposed a model under which a chain of institutions would be set up under the Indian International Institute of Technology brand name with domestic IITs as mentors.
The members of the committee included the directors of IIT Delhi, Madras, Kharagpur; ISM Dhanbad, Guwahati, Kanpur; Indian Institute of Science; NIT Surathkal; and the vice-chancellors of JNU, Delhi University, the University of Hyderabad and Banaras Hindu University; and, Dean (International Relations) IIT Bombay.
“The new institutes could be called ‘Indian International Institute of Technology at (country name)’. The suggested name is sufficiently close to IIT with international added to clarify that the institute is located outside India. The difference in the name (with sufficient similarity) will allow the newly established institutes to evolve their own identity and ethos, while drawing upon the strength of the existing IITs,” the report stated.
However, for the project to succeed and not become a burden on the mentor institutes, “substantial investment by the government of the host country or of the Indian government” will be required, the report stated. “In fact, the sponsoring institution in India should expect a reasonable amount of royalty (say 10 percent to 15 percent of the overall expenditure of the offshore campus) out of such a campus,” the committee said in the report.
Also, the offshore campus will need to follow the laws and regulations of the host country, indicating that there will be no reservations for students or employees unless provided by the local laws. “The Act of Parliament through which these institutes are created should give them more freedom than the current IITs,” the committee said in the report.
In the committee’s report, Bhutan, Nepal, Bahrain, Japan, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea and Uzbekistan have been ranked a notch below the seven countries that have been identified. Indian authorities should work out arrangements in these countries also, the committee said.
French Prime Minister Elisabeth Borne has activated an inter-ministerial crisis team, saying on Friday that her country was experiencing the worst drought ever recorded.
"The current exceptional drought is depriving many communities of water and is a tragedy for our farmers, our ecosystems and biodiversity," Borne wrote in a statement.
The lack of rain is being aggravated by successive heat waves, Borne continued, which on the one hand increase evaporation, but also the demand for water, dpa news agency reported.
The situation could continue over the next two weeks and even become more worrying, she added.
In France, large parts of the mainland are now suffering from drought.
Depending on the severity, different restrictions on water apply, including on irrigation.
According to local media, some municipalities were temporarily without water supply.
Borne called on the population to use water sparingly.